Three-way catalyst (TWC)

Gasoline or petrol fuelled vehicles typically use a three-way catalyst (TWC), so-called because it converts three pollutants, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) to carbon dioxide, water and nitrogen.

Gasoline particulate filter (GPF)

Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) are being developed to enable compliance with future particulate number (PN) limits for passenger cars equipped with gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines.

Gasoline particulate filters (GPF)

Gasoline particulate filters (GPF)

GPF systems operate at higher average temperatures than diesel particulate filters, giving improved scope for three way catalyst (TWC) pollutant conversion activity.

Three-way catalyst (TWC)

Three-way catalyst (TWC)

A three-way catalyst can cut CO, HC and NOx by over 99% if the air to fuel ratio is accurately controlled.